English Style

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James I Jacobean

Jacobean chair was the wainscot chair, which became lighter in form, while turned legs chairs appeared.
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Jacobean’s furniture style was massive but simple. The carving was sometimes gilded and wood was painted black to impersonate Asian enamel. It was mainly made of oak, while lime and cherry were commonly used. Cypress was preferred for making chests.

Some exotic woods were used for cabinet construction, and pear wood stained black and imitating ebony was also used in decorations

Tables were made of oak with black lines of pear tree, the legs were initially bulb-turned, evolving later to simpler baluster forms, with the rails carved in arabesque or lunette patterns.

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The main characteristic of the Jacobean style was the severe perpendicularity of the furniture. The chairs had rectangular seats with their backs straight, their legs and those of tables were perpendicular. It was carved in decorations with patterns of eights, contiguous circles, semicircles with petals within, lozenge panelling, double scrolls and the rounded arch. The spiral is used on chair-legs and cupboards.

An interesting, rare type of chair was the X shaped, upholstered chair. The upholstered chairs were brought from Venice during the reign of James I.

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William of OrangeWilliam and Mary

Once upon a time, there were two people named William and Mary. They bought some furniture, and it changed the world.

William and Mary style significantly changed the taste in English furniture. The medieval furniture styles began to diminish which were characterized by the color black, the heavy, thick and blocky elements. While William and Mary’s furniture style was influenced by the Dutch and Chinese cultures which were lighter, more comfortable and flexible. The style was accompanied by trumpet turned legs, Spanish ball feet, and Oriental lacquer work.

The daybed was developed in Britain as part of the William and Mary style. and the writing desk, which was an adaptation of the bureau-cabinet.

emphasize lighter, versatile, and more comfortable forms

William and Mary furniture was physically lighter and thinner. Chairs, tables, desks, and chests of drawers were also raised higher off the ground to emphasize this

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William and Mary

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William and Mary sofa

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William and Mary
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Queen Anne

Queen Anne furniture originated in 1689 during the reign of William III of England however was not made popular until 1720.

Queen Anne style furniture is characterized by cabriole legs, pad or drake feet, fiddle-backed chairs, and bat-wing-shaped drawer pulls.

Also it was characterized by being comfortable and flexible. It was designed to be light to be easily movable between rooms. With minimal ornamentation and embellishment, Queen Anne furniture was influenced by styles from Asian culture.

The Queen Anne chair was the first seat designed with a cushion for comfort. Winged backs on chairs and lounges made for enjoyable long-term sitting. Queen Anne claimed the first ergonomically built chair to provide support for the spine. In current design, Queen Anne furniture is described as antique furniture. Although poplar, cherry and maple woods were used to construct the furniture, beech, walnut wood was most utilized. Curved lines in the legs, feet, arms and pediments are the only adornments used in the Queen Anne style. These adornments are known as C-scrolls and S-scrolls.

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Queen Anne

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Queen Anne chifonire

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Queen Anne chair
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Queen Anne chest
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Thomas ChippendaleChippendale

Thomas Chippendale was born in Otley in a carpenters family. Chippendale’s designs came from several styles, from Rococò to Gothic, chinois Erie and Neoclassical works of the architect Robert Adam.

Gothic Chippendale, featured with s-shaped curves and pointed arches in the backs of chairs.

Chinese Chippendale, whose creations often included cabinets and shelves  featuring pagoda-style pediments arranged in a fretwork design.

The highest quality Chippendale chairs, tables, cabinets and other pieces, used mahogany which was reddish-brown hardwood. It was more durable and suitable for carving.but there are modern replicas with Chippenale reproductions are often made from other woods, including maple, cherry, beech and walnut.

If you are looking for basic guidelines on how to identify Chippendale furniture, keep an eye for pointed arches, S-shaped curves, and wooden lattices. There are several common elements among pieces, including the following leg styles.

  • Ball and Claw Feet
  • Cabriole Legs (curved style leg)
  • Reeded and Fluted Legs (more classically styled)
  • Elaborate Rococo Legs ( elaborate carvings)
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Thomas Chippendale

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Chippendale chair

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Chippendale
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Chippendale
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George Hepplewhite Hepplewhite

In 1788 George Hepplewhite published a book featuring about 300 projects, “The Cabinet Maker and Upholsterers Guide”. The book will influence cabinet makers for several years.

Hepplewhite furniture is characterized by its Neoclassical influence, delicate appearance, tapered legs, and contrasting veneers and inlay

The furniture designed by Hepplewhite Recurrent characteristics are:

  • Shield shaped chair back and delicate carving;
  • upholstered seats
  • straight, tapered legs

The carving was important in his designs. He preferred satinwood and sycamore for unusual veneering.

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Hepplewhite table

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Hepplewhite chair

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Hepplewhite buffet
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Thomas Sheraton Sheraton

“The Cabinet Maker’s and Upholsterer’s Drawing ” book was published by Sheraton in four volumes in 1791, shortly after Hepplewight‘s publication.

Sheraton furniture is characterized by an almost severe simplicity, straight lines, contrasting veneers, and sometimes tapered legs.

Thomas Sheraton was born in StocktononTees in 1751. He never received specialized training to improve his working skills ,He moved to London around 1790 when he was forty years old

Sheraton furniture featured contrasting veneers and inlays. Dealing with woods, his favorite types for the decorations were: tulipwood, birch, ash, and rosewood. For the base, satinwood was his favorite, along with mahogany, beech, and walnut. His way of working can be recognized by:

  • Rectangular and rectilinear frames, in contrast with Heppelwhite’s
  • Sheraton pieces usually have straight, tapered legs
  • Motifs such as urns, rosettes, and flowers
  • Japanned motifs.
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Sheraton Buffet

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Sheraton secretaire

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Sheraton Table
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Queen VictoriaVictorian

Victorian furniture was the first style to be manufactured

Victorian furniture style was Created during the industrial revolution .It was characterized by a Romantic influence, heavy proportions, dark finish, and elaborate ornamentation

Queen Victoria became queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Her reign lasted 63 years and seven months is called the “Victorian Age”. It was a period of extraordinary growth in the United Kingdom

Victorian furniture style was simple designs, straight lines, and natural or neutral upholstery & made using decorative veneers, such as mahogany.

Victorian furniture can often be very large, as it was made for rooms with generous proportions and high ceilings.

The Victorian furniture style considered the more the details, design and components the more precious the furniture item is. It was characterized by the differentiated pattern with the natural images of floral, leafy and curving patterns. They used walnut, rosewood or mahogany to craft the furniture items.

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Victorian Buffet

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Victorian Sofa

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Victorian Table